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Is bio-fouling an issue for the C-sense and if so, how can it be mitigated?
Bio-fouling is an issue for most submersible instrumentation measuring natural environments, both fresh and saline.  In the case of the C-sense, accumulation of organisms on the membrane has two potential but competing effects.  The presence of the accumulation can decrease the equilibration time by impeding the transfer of gasses.  Alternatively, the organisms can emit CO2 as a result of respiration, artificially elevating the CO2 concentration.  Turner Designs offers accessories for the C-sense that help reduce the effects of bio-fouling.  Copper Antifouling Guard P/N 2400-507 can be installed on the sensor head outside the membrane.  This protects the membrane and prevents organisms from growing on the instrument head.  The Water Pumped Head P/N 2400-700 accessory will inhibit bio-fouling in two ways, first by significantly reducing the amount of available light for photosynthesis, secondly by creating shear stress that prevents organisms from settling on the membrane.  The Water Pumped head has the additional advantage of reducing equilibration times.  The two accessories should not be used together so it is recommended that the user decide on the necessity of the Water Pumped head first, and plan accordingly.