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Introduction: New VP of Marketing & Sales, Pam Mayerfeld
In the Spotlight: New C3 Submersible Fluorometer for in situ Optical Characterization of Water Samples
Optical Brighteners: New Module for Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer
Instruments in Action: C3 Submersible Fluorometer Evaluation by Oil Spill Response Teams
Lawrence's Corner: Calibrating the AquaFluor with a Solid Secondary Standard
Instrument Donation Program: Turner Designs gives away one Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer and two AquaFluor Handheld Fluorometers every year!
Upcoming Events: View Our Upcoming Tradeshows including Ocean Business 2009
Knowledge Data Base: Search our database for technical questions
Welcome to 2009 ! And please allow me to introduce myself. My name is Pam Mayerfeld and I recently joined Turner Designs as the VP of Marketing & Sales. My name might ring a bell for some of you as I previously worked for Turner Designs from 1995 to 2001. I spent the last seven years in the laser industry and am very happy to be back at Turner Designs with our incredible products, employees, and (of course) customers.

The array of products Turner Designs developed in the last few years was one of my driving reasons to return. In the past year alone I see that Turner Designs introduced:

C3 Submersible Fluorometer
C6 Digital Data Output
PhytoFlash Titanium Optical Head
CTD to PhytoFlash cable
C3 & C6 Booster cables

I look forward to continuously expanding the Turner Designs product line to enable you to meet your measurement needs. Please feel free to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with any suggestions for new products or applications that would benefit you.

fluorometerBest Regards,
Pam Mayerfeld

VP of Marketing & Sales

In the Spotlight

fluorometerNew C3 Submersible Fluorometer for in situ Optical Characterization of Water Samples

Last summer we introduced the C3 Submersible Fluorometer designed to incorporate one, two, or three optical sensors in addition to temperature, depth and a wiper motor that minimizes bio-fouling for long term deployments. Sensors can be selected for detection of in vivo Chlorophyll a, blue green algae, rhodamine WT dye, fluorescein, crude oil, CDOM, and optical brighteners and turbidity. The C3 can be used in freshwater, coastal and open ocean applications. The versatility of the C3 allows customers to use it during profiles and long-term moored deployments as well as discrete sampling.

The C-Soft Windows™ based user interface allows for intuitive calibration, data logging, and data management. Digital data output allows for easy integration with existing water monitoring systems such as CTDs, dataloggers, vessels of opportunity and buoys.

With the introduction of the C3, the SCUFA is no longer available. SCUFA owners can take advantage of our new SCUFA trade-in progam and receive a significant discount on the purchase of a new C3 Submersible Fluorometer. For details, please contact our This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .



Optical Brighteners: New Module for Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer

Optical Brighteners (OBAs) or Fluorescent Whitening Agents (FWAs) are added to products such as laundry soaps, detergents, and cleaning agents. They adsorb to fabrics or materials during the washing or cleaning process and when illuminated by ultraviolet light they fluoresce and make products and fabrics appear brighter.

Laundry wastewater is the largest contributor of brighteners to wastewater systems. FWA or OBA contributions to the total volume of most laundry detergents are less than 0.5%, however a large portion (up to 80%) can remain in discharged wastewater as dissolved compounds (molecular). The presence of brighteners in water systems, to which wastewater is being discharged, could mean failing septic systems, sewage leaks, or complete lack of water treatment. Therefore, detection of Optical Brighteners in aquatic systems can help water municipalities or researchers correct system failures and avoid increased anthropogenic input that may greatly impact ecosystems.

Fluorescence Methods
There are various sample processing methodologies for Optical Brightener determination; the underlining factor among them is that fluorescence is mandatory for the determination of brightener absence or presence.

There has recently been increased interest in detection of brighteners in natural water samples. This interest might be largely due to the potential public health risks that may be avoided by evaluating brighteners in the natural environment.

fluorometerTurner Designs recently developed and released a new Trilogy Optical Brightener Module (PN 7200-047) that can be used to detect the presence or absence of Optical Brighteners in water systems.

Water quality is currently being assessed by fecal coliform standards through federal, state, and municipal agencies. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between Optical Brightener concentrations and fecal coliform levels. The Optical Brightener Module, when calibrated, can be used to determine Optical Brightener concentrations which can be correlated to coliform levels. Correlating Optical Brightener concentrations to fecal coliform levels can provide valuable information to help researchers determine if contamination sources are attributed to human waste.

Trilogy Optical Brightener Test Data
The Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer with Optical Brightener Module was tested to determine linearity, range, and detection limits. Optical Brighteners are added to detergents; however manufacturers of these detergents do not state the brightener concentration on the product label. Three different detergents were compared (Tide, Tide with Downey, and Good Day Laundry detergent with Bleach) to show how concentrations of brighteners can vary among different or similar detergents.

Lower Detection Limit
Maximum Linear Range
Tide with Downey
0.60 ppm
15,000 ppm
0.50 ppm
10,000 ppm
Good Day with Bleach
0.10 ppm
9,000 ppm

Table 1: Brightener limits can vary among different or similar detergents.


Figure 1: Linear range for Tide with Downey is plotted showing the linear range and dynamic range for detection of this detergent. r2 = 0.99 for linear regression.


Instruments in Action - C3 Submersible Fluorometer

Oil Spill Response teams evaluate Turner Designs' C3 as an alternative method of in situ detection

Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) is a cooperatively designed monitoring program. The SMART protocol uses small efficient teams of trained personnel with rugged and easy to use field instruments. Hydrocarbon concentrations are monitored for reaction to the addition of dispersants and the use of burning techniques. The crude oil concentrations are monitored using fluorescence. The fluorometer used to monitor the dispersed oil is an essential part of the SMART process. The new C3 Submersible Fluorometer is under evaluation for integration into this system. In addition to the 10-AU-005-CE Field Fluorometer, the C3 will provide a powerful, easy to use and deployable in situ system. The C3 has a robust memory of 480,000 data points, automatic gain control and proven optic configurations ported from our Cyclops-7 line of products.

Image 1: Brian Parscal, Project Specialist for the Clean Island Council, and crew conducting tests using the C3 in Alaskan waters. (Photo provided courtesy of Brian Parscal)

Initial testing was done using the Cyclops-7 (C-7) Submersible Fluorometer. The package that was put together consisted of the Cyclops-7 sensor, an analog/digital converter and a laptop computer. Testing was conducted at Ohmsett and indicated that the Cyclops-7 optics were suitable for tier II and III of the SMART Program. Data from the C-7 was compared with the data from the Strike Team's 10-AU. A very close correlation was made between the instruments' measurements. This test illustrates the potential for in situ fluorometry within the SMART protocol. Below: Figure 1 is a laboratory comparison of the C7 & 10AU's performance and Figure 2 is a comparison of their field data.

Figure 1
Figure 2

Initial field testing with the C3 was conducted as part of the Cook Inlet Area Wide Exercise in September of 2008. John Whitney (NOAA), John Engles (Alaska DEC) and Brian Parscal (Clean Island Council) conducted a SMART exercise on board a USCG Safe Boat. Although they were unable to use fluorescein dye as a secondary reference for this exercise, they were able to gain some valuable insight into the viability of the C3 as a field instrument. The C3 used in this test was configured to detect crude oil and was used with a battery pack, a data cable, and a Panasonic ToughBook computer. The participants agreed that the C3 is easy to deploy and well-suited for the SMART mission.

Information on SMART can be obtained at Contributed Images and data were provided by the Clean Island Council (


Lawrence's Corner

How do I calibrate my AquaFluor Handheld Fluorometer using my Adjustable Solid Standard?


Turner Designs manufactures Adjustable Solid Standards that are used for checking:
• Stability
• Drift
• Calibration

The Red Adjustable Solid Standard (P/N: 8000-952) is recommended for the following applications:

The Orange Adjustable Solid Standard (P/N: 8000-951) is recommended for the following applications:

The Adjustable Solid Standard Kit for the AquaFluor includes:
• 1 Solid Standard
• 1 Allen Wrench for locking hex screw
• 1 Allen Wrench for the adjustable hex screw


Correlating the Adjustable Solid Standard to Direct Concentrations
1. Calibrate the AquaFluor using a liquid primary standard or solution that has a known concentration. (Post-calibration Note: the AquaFluor should display values that represent concentration estimates)

2. Loosen the locking hex screw.

3. Adjust the Solid Standard to a desired concentration value using the adjustable hex screw and measure the value of the Solid Standard using the AquaFluor. (The adjustment may need to be repeated several times to achieve the desired concentration)

4. When the desired concentration is set, lock the value into place using the locking hex screw.

5. The Adjustable Solid Standard now represents a specific concentration and as long as it is not further adjusted and is properly used/stored, the value should not change.

Correlating the Adjustable Solid Standard to Relative Fluorescence
For in vivo applications, which are qualitative in nature, such as in vivo chlorophyll, calibrations are typically made by correlating the fluorescence intensity of your natural water sample to some arbitrary fluorescence value

1. Calibrate the AquaFluor using a natural water sample or solution that contains the fluorophore of interest. (Post-calibration Note: the AquaFluor should display raw fluorescence values representing relative fluorescence intensities)

2. Loosen the locking hex screw.

3. Adjust the Solid Standard to a desired fluorescence intensity using the adjustable hex screw and measure the value of the Solid Standard using the AquaFluor. (The adjustment may need to be repeated several times to achieve the desired fluorescence intensity)

4. When the desired fluorescence intensity is set, lock the value into place using the locking hex screw.

5. The Adjustable Solid Standard now represents that specific fluorescence intensity and as long as it is not further adjusted and is properly used/stored, the value should not change.


Instrument Donation Program

In 2007 Turner Designs introduced its Instrument Donation Program which offers one Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer and two AquaFluor Handheld fluorometerfluorometerFluorometers annually. We developed this program in an effort to assist non-profit, government, and academic institutions to obtain the instruments needed for aquatic research and/or monitoring. Over the last two years we awarded 6 donation instruments, visit our donation recipients page to learn more about the awardees.

We will be awarding a Trilogy and AquaFluor in June and another AquaFluor in December. Application deadlines are May 1st for June awards and November 1st for the December award. You can easily apply for a fluorometer donation on our website.


Upcoming Events
Ocean Business 2009, Southampton, United Kingdom, National Oceanography Centre, March 31 - April 2, 2009, Booth# T3 In addition to exhibiting we will also be hosting a free workshop on Tuesday, March 31st from 2:30-3:30pm in the John Swallow Room 054/06 .
Our UK distributor, RS Aqua, will also be exhibiting at booth number F1, please stop by and say hello!


52nd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research, Ohio, USA, University of Toledo, May 18 - 22, 2009, Booth #TBA

OCEANS 2009 MTS/IEEE Biloxi, Mississippi, USA, Mississippi Coast Coliseum and Convention Center, October 26 - 29, 2009, Booth #614


Turner Designs Knowledge Database

Don't forget to check out our Knowledge Database. It is a robust search engine if you have technical questions about Turner Designs' products or applications.

Your feedback and input are not only welcome but also essential for us to continually improve our KDB. Please feel free to use the Add case link at the bottom of the main screen to submit ideas for future articles or suggest inclusion of information you feel would be of interest. Also the Feedback link provides a means to contact the technical support team on any question you have regarding Turner Designs products or services.



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